In adjusted analyses, we found a significant association between low maternal iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) such that children had an approximately 60% greater risk of being in the bottom quartile of scores for verbal intelligence quotient, reading accuracy and comprehension. My thyroid is subclinical hypo. In the absence of official guidance, UK women of childbearing age should ensure that iodine requirements are met, ideally prior to conception, to optimise thyroidal stores, and iodine deficiency should particularly be avoided during pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid UK 112,778 members • 131,054 posts Join Write Home About Posts Members Iodine deficiency and hashimoto ER100 • • 11 Replies I have hashimoto's and I am iodine deficient. Many dairy-milk substitutes (e.g. Br J Nutr 2012;107(7):935-40. Endocrinology; clinical studies; nutrition; pregnancy. Br J Nutr 2014: E publicatation 7 January 2014; . Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination, 3rd edition Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2007. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94(9):3234-41. A low intake of iodine over a long period of time will cause your thyroid to work harder to try to keep the right amount of thyroid hormones in your blood. Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet. Clin Med (Lond). UK: Maternal iodine deficiency do not lead to an increased autism risk in offspring, reveals results from a recent study in the journal BMC Pediatrics.  |  United Kingdom, IDDSI: The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative framework, Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition (PEN), COVID-19 / Coronavirus Community Guidance, Annual General Meeting & Elsie Widdowson Lecture, Social Partnership Forum Staff Transfer Guide, Consultation Response - NHSEI Weight Management Service discussion paper, Iodine deficiency in the UK – dietetic implications. Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women. The scientists found, however, iodine was “markedly lower” among the vegans, with a third having levels below the World Health Organization’s (WHO) threshold for “severe deficiency”. Iodine deficiency. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005520. 6. In this disorder, production of the thyroid hormones, such as thyroxine, is suppressed. There are only two iodine intervention studies that have been conducted in pregnant women in regions of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child cognitive outcomes;3,4 both studies found that iodine supplementation benefitted child cognition though the results should be interpreted with caution as unfortunately neither study was randomised nor placebo controlled. Bath SC, Walter A, Taylor A, Wright J, Rayman MP. 1. WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. Inadequate iodine intake of 40% of pregnant women from a region in Scotland. No. 2014 Jun 12;4(6):e005520. Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. An iodine deficiency can cause uncomfortable and even severe symptoms. Iodine deficiency is a nutritional imbalance resulting from not consuming enough iodine in your diet. Recent research has revealed that some UK populations are now mild to moderately iodine deficient 3,4,5,6 and that this level of deficiency may come with risks to child cognitive development. Helpful and informative articles about food, nutrition and exercise from our excellent team of dietitians. Iodine is central to the functioning of the thyroid gland and the production of its hormones. Milk and dairy products are the principal source of iodine in the UK; other rich sources include seafood and eggs. 10. In fact, the country now ranks seventh among the ten most iodine-defi cient nationsin the world, one of only two high-income countries on the list. The UK Iodine Group: aiming to eradicate iodine deficiency in the UK. Push to increase the supply and availability of iodized salt in the UK A joint initiative of British Salt The recommended iodine intake for adults (>12 years) is 150 µg/day.1 (see references below) During pregnancy and lactation, the requirement for iodine rises from 150 to 250 µg of iodine per day.1  The requirement is higher in pregnancy for three reasons: Ensuring an adequate supply of iodine during lactation is essential as breast milk iodine concentration reflects maternal iodine intake and brain development continues in the postnatal period. If you take iodine supplements, do not take too much as this could be harmful. About us Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective. Sarah is registered dietitian and has worked with the BDA to produce an Iodine Food Fact Sheet. Individuals with thyroid disease or those who have experienced iodine deficiency over many years should speak to their GP before taking additional iodine. 9. By the early part of the 20th century a goitre belt was described that extended from the West Country and included Derbyshire – where goitre was so common it was called ‘Derbyshire neck’. This article was written by Dr Sarah Bath, an MRC Population Health Scientist Research Fellow at the University of Surrey who has been researching iodine in the UK since 2006. There is a known seasonal variation in the iodine content of milk with higher levels in winter milk than summer milk as cows are more reliant on mineral-fortified feed in the winter.7 In addition organic milk has an iodine concentration that is over 40% lower than that of conventional milk.18, Table 1: Approximate iodine concentration in a range of foods17, *Actual iodine content will vary ‡Lower iodine concentration for organic Bath SC, Steer CD, Golding J, Emmett P, Rayman MP. Iodine deficiency was once common in the UK in the 1800s and early part of the 20th century. Zimmermann MB. In the 1800s, iodine deficiency was historically common in the UK. Evidence suggests that women who have a good supply of iodine prior to conception have a better thyroid hormone profile during pregnancy than those who abruptly increase their iodine intake at the start of pregnancy.16, In view of the evidence of iodine deficiency in certain groups of the population and the fact that there is very little information on iodine available to health professionals or the general public, Professor Rayman and I have produced a BDA Iodine Food Fact Sheet.17.  |  **Depending on the season, higher value in winter. Kelp supplements should not be used as an iodine source and should not be recommended to pregnant women owing to the risk of excessive iodine intake.2. Epub 2018 Sep 25. It may result in metabolic problems such as goiter, sometimes as an endemic goiter as well as cretinism due to untreated congenital hypothyroidism, which results in developmental delays and other health problems. In the Peak District, it was so common it was called Derbyshire neck. Proc Nutr Soc. Between the 1950s and the 1980s, iodine intake increased three-fold and was sufficient to eradicate goitre; 7 it was subsequently assumed that iodine deficiency was not a problem in the UK. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95(7):3207-15. 2013 May;72(2):226-35. doi: 10.1017/S0029665113001006. Lancet 2013:doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60436-5. 13. There is an increase the requirement of maternal iodine during pregnancy to supply thyroid hormones essential for … Proc Nutr Soc 2012;71:E143. Lancet 2011;377(9782):2007-12. While randomized controlled trials in severe iodine deficiency have shown that iodine deficiency in pregnancy causes impaired offspring cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild/mild-to-moderate deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency is known to cause cretinism, a condition characterised by severe learning disability and deafness.2. 2020 May 29;12(6):1606. doi: 10.3390/nu12061606. Iodine deficiency is associated with goitre and hypothyroidism; in England this is sometimes known as Derbyshire Neck. Abel MH, Caspersen IH, Sengpiel V, Jacobsson B, Meltzer HM, Magnus P, Alexander J, Brantsæter AL. The United Kingdom is now classified as mildly iodine deficient by the World Health Organization, based on a 2011 national study of 14-15-year-old schoolgirls. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones, T4 and T3, and these hormones are required for regulation of metabolic rate, growth and development. Lampropoulou M, Lean M, Combet Aspray E. Iodine status of women of childbearing age in Scotland. Goitre develops at low iodine intakes and this hyperplasia of the thyroid is an adaptive response to low iodine supply by increasing the iodine-trapping potential of the thyroid. Endocr Rev 2009;30(4):376-408. In contrast with many other countries, the UK has not introduced a programme of iodine fortification such as salt iodisation. Phillips DI. There is considerably more focus and interest in iodine in the UK than in the past 50 years or so but iodine remains a nutrient that many health professionals are unaware of and is often overlooked. The objective of this report is to provide an updated analysis of the iodine deficiency situation in … In the UK and other developed countries, there is more concern about the effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. iodine deficiency, UI and TGP, for each country for which data are available. HHS Iodine is an essential component of two hormones produced by your thyroid: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Bath S, Walter A, Taylor A, Rayman MP. to facilitate the 50% surge in thyroid hormone production in early pregnancy. 19. Dietetic Jobs 2018 Oct 17;11(1):738. doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3829-0. As urinary iodine is considered as good biomarker of iodine status, the WHO recommends comparing the median urinary concentration value from a group of spot-urine samples to published criteria for determining population iodine status.1 The first national survey of iodine status in the UK for more 60 years was reported in 20118 - the urinary iodine results from over 700 schoolgirls (14-15 years) revealed mild iodine deficiency and the authors urged a comprehensive review of iodine status in the UK.8 There are also a number of small, localised studies that measured urinary iodine excretion in women of childbearing age, finding that they were mildly iodine deficient9-11 and deficiency has been demonstrated in pregnant women in south-east12 and north-east England,13 Scotland14 and Cardiff.15, These studies raise concern – they not only suggest that UK pregnant women are not meeting their iodine requirement, but that young women may be entering pregnancy with low thyroidal iodine stores which are inadequate to maintain thyroid function during pregnancy. Thyroid 2009;19(5):511-9. The UK’s iodine-defi ciency problem is one such issue. Raising concerns, Address B3 2TA 17. There is evidence that certain groups of the UK population, particularly pregnant women and women of childbearing age, are iodine deficient which is therefore of considerable public-health concern. USA.gov. The median urinary iodine concentration was 85.3 μg/L in Surrey women, considerably lower than the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders cut-off of 150 μg/L. 12. A sufficient intake of iodine during pregnancy is vital for the brain and neurological development of the fetus which is dependent on the action of thyroid hormones. People who … If you compare a list of iodine deficiency symptoms, and a list of hypo symptoms, you will find they are more or less the same 2015 Aug;37(4):619-29. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9682-3. Environ Geochem Health. 5. Without sufficient dietary iodine many of our body’s systems and functions (particularly the thyroid) will operate below par, and a prolonged deficiency will cause disease. 4. BMC Med. 2018 Dec;78(12):1262-1282. doi: 10.1055/a-0713-1058. In hypothyroidism, there is a reduced level of thyroid hormone (thyroxine) in the body. The results, published in the Lancet in May 2013, showed that low iodine status during early pregnancy (urinary iodine/creatinine ratio <150 µg/g) was significantly associated with the child being in bottom quartile of scores for verbal IQ at age eight (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09–2.30; p=0.02), reading accuracy (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.15-2.49; p=0.007) and reading comprehension (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.23; p=0.02) at age nine years following adjustment up to 21 potential confounding variables 6 this study suggests that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency ALSPAC women was associated with long-lasting effects on child cognition. Here’s a List of Reasons Why Iodine Is Essential for Health. Oxford women had similarly low status. 2. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Goitre (the physical symptom of iodine deficiency) was found in several regions – including the South West, Wales and the Peak District. This article explores the signs, symptoms, and complications of iodine deficiency It is clear that iodine excess should be avoided as there may be deleterious consequences for thyroid hormone production (both hypo- and hyperthyroidism).2 The safe upper limit is approximately 600 µg/day for adults (>12 years) and pregnant women2 but individuals with chronic iodine deficiency may adversely react to levels lower than this if thyroidal adaptation to low iodine supply has occurred. Iodine Global Network is a non-profit, non-government organization for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency worldwide. 18. There are several studies that relate mild thyroid hormone deficiency in pregnancy to a negative effect on child cognitive development5 but these studies have not measured iodine status during pregnancy and therefore, until recently, the effect of in utero mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency on child cognition has been relatively unexplored. Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy could be dimming the intellect of some babies born in the UK, say researchers. Vanderpump MP, Lazarus JH, Smyth PP, et al. to cover potential increased renal loss of iodine during pregnancy and; to supply iodine to the fetus to produce its own thyroid hormones after the onset of thyroid function in mid-gestation. 2020 Jun 19;11:409. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00409. Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. This can cause various symptoms, the most common being tiredness, weight gain, constipation, aches, dry skin and feeling cold. Anyone who completely avoids dairy products and fish or consumes them in limited quantities is at risk of iodine deficiency. eCollection 2020. Iodine deficiency might be contributing to the large increase in thyroid problems being seen clinically. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;24(1):29-38. Bath SC, Steer CD, Golding J, Emmett PM, Rayman MP. Therefore, too much and too little iodine can cause serious effects in the body. We’ve known since 2011 that the UK population is mildly iodine defi cient. Nutrients. Iodine, milk, and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: the story of an accidental public health triumph. If your diet alone is not supplying enough iodine, you may want to consider adding an iodine supplement. Though the UK has long been considered to be iodine sufficient, there is increasing concern that this is no longer the case, particularly in women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. Consequences of Severe Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: Evidence in Humans. 11. Availability of iodised table salt in the UK – is it likely to influence population iodine intake? Iodine deficiency can lead to swelling of the thyroid gland (goitre) and to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). 14. Berbel P, Mestre JL, Santamaria A, et al. Public Health Nutr 2013:E-Pub 16 Jan. © 2020 content and site imagery designed by the British Dietetic Association. 16. Keywords: Winter 2020 edition out now. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2011;74(6):762-8. Ghassabian A, Steenweg-de Graaff J, Peeters RP, Ross HA, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, White T, Tiemeier H. BMJ Open. 8. Velasco I, Carreira M, Santiago P, et al. Two-thirds of pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at the University of Gondar Hospital are found with subclinical iodine deficiency, 2017. The UK Iodine Group was formed in June 2012 with the aim of ensuring that iodine deficiency is eradicated in the UK. J Endocrinol Invest 2002;25:(Supp. The body only needs very little iodine but it must get the amount it needs. 3rd Floor Interchange Place,  |  People can also take it as a supplement. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Effect of iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy on neurocognitive development of children during the first two years of life. Prevalence of maternal dietary iodine insufficiency in the north east of England: implications for the fetus. Melse-Boonstra A, Jaiswal N. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Taking 0.5mg or less a day of iodine supplements is unlikely to cause any harm. Goitre develops at low iodine intakes and this hyperplasia of the thyroid is an adaptive response to low iodine supply by increasing the iodine-trapping potential of the thyroid. cating mild iodine deficiency, with low UI of <100 μg/l present in over two-thirds of the girls and a small number having very low levels <50 μg/l. Diet and Lifestyle Before and During Pregnancy - Practical Recommendations of the Germany-wide Healthy Start - Young Family Network. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 151-165 Edmund Street, Delayed neurobehavioral development in children born to pregnant women with mild hypothyroxinemia during the first month of gestation: the importance of early iodine supplementation. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2004;89(5):F436-9. Iodine deficiency disorders The 'iodine deficiency disorders' are largely the result of an inadequate production of thyroid hormones. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring. Vegans are a recognised at-risk group for many nutrient deficiencies, including iodine and vegetarians may also have a low iodine intake depending on the amount of milk and dairy products in their diet. Jobs with the BDA The United Kingdom is now classified as mildly iodine deficient by the World Health Organization, based on a 2011 national study of 14-15-year-old schoolgirls. Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? And, iodine will not fix it, either, only make the problem worse. Lancet. Iodine is a difficult element to get naturally in the diet, which is why much of the world has addressed iodine deficiency by fortifying foods and providing iodized salt – but iodine deficiency clearly persists in populations and it is (T3). NLM soya milk) are not enriched with iodine. In collaboration with researchers at the University of Bristol, Professor Margaret Rayman and I were able to investigate this relationship by measuring iodine status in 1,040 pregnant women that were recruited to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children (ALSPAC) in the 1990s. British Dietetic Association,  UK women who might become pregnant should ensure they have adequate iodine status to avoid compromising their children's brain development. Eveleigh ER, Coneyworth LJ, Avery A, Welham SJM. Moleti M, Di Bella B, Giorgianni G, et al. Iodine deficiency is diagnosed across populations and not specifically in individuals. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). As pregnancy is the most critical time for brain development, we evaluated iodine status in pregnant women in Surrey (n = 100) and Oxford (n = 230). Epub 2015 Feb 7. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Iodine is water soluble. MC_PC_15018/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom, MR/K02132X/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom. Pearce EN, Lazarus JH, Smyth PP, et al. 2014 Dec;14 Suppl 6:s7-11. Birmingham, Bath S, Button S, Rayman MP. You should be able to get all the iodine you need by eating a varied and balanced diet. 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