Frequencies were used to estimate the magnitude of occupational exposure. Meanwhile, participants from Eastern, Lusaka and Northern provinces were less likely to be exposed to the hazards compared with those from Western province. Map of Zambia showing locations of its provinces. The underground department had the highest frequency rates of fatalities (111/100 000 employee years) and injuries (5.5/1000 employee years). KEY HEALTH CHALLENGES FOR ZAMBIA 7 of health facilities (1,489) are owned and operated by the public sector. First aid kit was present at 60 (38.7%) sites. The Statistical Office was approached to add to a forthcoming LFS question about occupational health and related matters. C ciated with hazard exposure were: older age, married and paid employee/employer/self-employed, likely to be exposed to hazards compared with those, Eastern, Lusaka and Northern provinces were less, likely to be exposed to the hazards compared with those, This study about exposure to occupational health haz-, ards in Zambia found that there were high frequencies, of reported exposure to smoke, fumes, powder or dust, inhalation, but the most commonly reported exposures, were ergonomic, such as lifting heavy objects, males than females were exposed to vibration from hand, machinery causing vibration and noise is more common, in male-dominated occupations which probably explains, One of the important ndings was that respondents with, more education were less likely to be exposed to health, likely to understand harmful exposures and avoid them. The most common injuries sustained were cut/injuries to the hands and fingers (38.0%), back/waist pain (19%), arc eye injuries/foreign bodies (17.0%), burns (14.0%), hearing impairment (7.0%), fractures (4.0%) and amputation (1.0%). Short title and commencement 2. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. This study assessed the awareness of occupational hazards and adherence to safety measures among welders in Kaduna metropolis in northern Nigeria. The Copper Belt province is the seat of Zambia’s copper mining industry. Statistical analysis used for analysis was Chi-Square test, unpaired t-test and ANOVA test. Overall, 257 (77.9%) of the welders were aware of one or more workplace hazards. Its organization has now become one of the political priorities of governments and their partners of development. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Severe LBP was significantly (p<0.05) linked to aging (51-60 years group), low BMI and those above average height (1.60 m). The CWA Occupational Safety and Health Manual is intended to pro-vide CWA leaders and members a basic understanding of occupational safety and health matters as well as identify resource organizations that can assist in dealing with specific problems. Regular use of safety device, shorter working hours and increasing experience were protective of occupational accidents. of demographic, social and economic factors between, The age distribution of males and females was simi, self-employed and more likely to be unpaid than male, Levels of exposure of males and females to health, pants were most frequently exposed to lifting heavy, objects, bending of the back and rapid movement of, limbs causing body pain (30%), followed by inhala, more likely than females to be exposed to all the haz, All the factors considered in bivariate analysis in, to occupational health hazards. occupational hazards, especially ergonomic haz-. Data on 59,118 persons aged 18 years or older were available for analysis, of which 29805 (50.4%) were males. Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Conclusions In, a study conducted among Nigerian welders, Sabitu, education were aware of occupational hazards and safety, measures compared to 78% among those who had pri, mary education and 85% among those who had secondary, Current number of employees at place of work. Children and young people aged 9 through 17 are exposed to hazardous occupational exposures including strenuous work, sharp tools, and pesticides. as ANSI Z10, and the “electrically safe work condition” as defined in NFPA 70E. Plasma cholinesterase activity in blood specimens obtained from farm workers was measured using spectrophotometry to establish levels of poisoning by organophosphate and/or carbamates. This study about exposure to occupational health hazards in Zambia found that there were high frequencies of reported exposure to smoke, fumes, powder or dust inhalation, but the most commonly reported exposures were ergonomic, such as lifting heavy objects. This benefit was greatest for workers originally in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in sawmills. Characteristics associated with hazard exposure were: older age, male sex, low education level, married/cohabiting or once married and paid employee/employer/self-employed status. S In this document, I present the academic productivity (teaching and research staff. in the Copperbelt Province, Birth outcomes and respiratory signs and symptoms data. The present study was conducted to estimate the burden of occupational illnesses in Zambia and assess factors associated with their occurrence. Hence the negative. D In the selected period, 165 injuries and 20 fatalities were recorded. Work-related illnesses and injuries include any illness or injury incurred by an employee engaged in work-related activities while on or off the worksite.Workplace settings vary widely in size, sector, design, location, work processes, workplace culture, and resources. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted among 200 workers in five HCFs of Lahore, Pakistan. Many were entitled to compensation under South African law. Webster The administrative hub of the country is in Lusaka province in which the capital city, Lusaka, is situated. TR JT Results: Thus, even with financial and resource related challenges the organization has been trying to take up the opportunities in implementing OSH and has been successful to some extent. The content analysis was carried out for data processing. [53] and Siziya et al. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) was designed to produce national, rural and urban estimates of various aspect of the labour market, such as the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics, and to provide key indicators of the labour market such as unemployment, underemployment and hours of work. Sadhra Burge In a study conducted among Nigerian welders, Sabitu et al. AV . Data were obtained from the Zambian Labour Force Survey of 2009. Ndukwu The general trend was that each of the professors and associate professors had more than 10 publications over the period; suggesting that academic seniority does not slow down academic prodiuctivity in the School. Occupational health, safety key in mining industry. The LFS was carried out and confidentiality upheld according to the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, Chapter 127 of the Laws of Zambia. Critical Challenges Facing Occupational Health & Safety: Today and Tomorrow John Howard National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Washington, D.C. 4 May 2016 NORA Symposium Midwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. All welders were males with a mean age of 35.7 +/- 8.4 years. Personal thoracic dust samples were collected during sisal processing and analyzed for concentration of dust (n = 24) and for fungi and bacteria (n = 32). The present study is conducted to determine occupational health and safety hazards with special focus on ergonomic hazards among healthcare facility (HCF) workers. Not being provided with personal protective equipment (OR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.07 - 3.68) and lack of knowledge of the triangle colour code for most dangerous agrochemicals (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.02 - 4.03) were significantly associated with abnormal cholinesterase activity. However, According to the ILO’s 2012 Zambia Country Profile on Occupational Safety and Health, the building construction industry reported 58 occupational fatalities between 2003 and 2007. Their pneumoconiosis went unrecognised because they had no access to surveillance after employment. Application PART II THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY INSTITUTE 4. Hence, most workers would be exposed to hazards emanating from agriculture, sales/services and mining activities, such as dust, lifting heavy objects and frequent bending of the back. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were used to measure magnitudes of associations. Exposure to health hazards at place of work in the past 12 months prior to the 2009 Zambia Labour Survey Factor Male n (%) Female n (%) Total n (%), . motivate and influence safety and health stakeholders. [59] Noweir et al. Objetivo: identificar las condiciones de trabajo y seguridad en una pequeña empresa de la ciudad de México. Fishing is the main occupation in Luapula and Western provinces. The goal of this study was to determine the occupational hazards experienced by children harvesting cocoa in western Ghana in order to design a vocational literacy life skills curriculum and radio social messaging campaign with a safety component to decrease hazardous work exposures in child agricultural work. [4] C-155 Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. Peasant farming is the major economic activity in the rest of the provinces. Moen . . to determine the effect of bias due to non-respondents. [2] reported that the mining industry employs about 15% of formally employed workers. 2. About three in four of the workforce in Zambia are engaged in the agricultural (50%) or sales/services (28%) sectors [1]. The most common morbidity over the past year was wounds 119 (76.8%). Siziya Clarke The study is based on a sample of 1,885 respondents all of whom were sawmill workers in 1979, For the first time, the 2015 revision to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70E made reference to a more than 50-year-old safety management methodology, with the reference to the hierarchy of risk controls in Section 110.1(G). It is common knowledge that Zambia … I supplemented the shortfalls of Pubmed by asking all faculty to review their publication list and indicate to me omissions. honey production spread over most of the provinces. Jackson The data was obtained from the Central Statistical Ofce, Diseases Research Centre, University of Zambia, Macro. Factors that were significantly associated with the poisoning were lack of protective clothing and lack of knowledge of the triangle colour code for most dangerous agrochemicals. SD The survey was followed by a consensus-building workshop to discuss research and training priorities with representatives from countries participating in the study. Information on 129 765 out of 164 980 persons were available for analysis, of which 64 119 (49%) were males. M The main occupational hazard reported by Zambian workers was heavy manual handling, whereas workers in the UK most frequently reported occupational stress [18]. Long-term spatial and temporal trends, and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. We were unable to determine the effect of bias due to non-respondents. This could be useful for the formulation of a multi-sector approach aimed at the prevention and control of hazard exposure. Interpretation 3. Moreover, our study is based on self-reported exposure meaning that information bias may have occurred. The handling of machinery causing vibration and noise is more common in male-dominated occupations which probably explains this finding. Sabitu S Both radiograph readers detected time response relations between pneumoconiosis and PMF among the 234 underground gold miners. Participants from Copperbelt, Luapula, North-Western, Southern and Central provinces were more likely to be exposed to hazards compared with those from Western province. Assessment of the ability of roadside vegetation to remove particulate matter from the urban air. Annual injury and fatality frequency rates (injuries per 1000 employee years and fatalities per 100 000 employee years, respectively) were calculated. occupational disease in African settings. Results: Males were more likely than females to be exposed to all the hazards listed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between demographic, social and economic factors and reported illness resulting from occupational exposures. Only, 1.5% of workers were identified as a "hard core" group of long-term unemployed. tional health hazards at a national level in Zambia. Debnath et al. The intent behind the Occupational Safety and Health topic area is to prevent diseases, injuries, and deaths that are due to working conditions. These effects have not been rigorously studied in small companies, despite what is generally known about their poor working conditions. P Female (odds ratio (OR) 1.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-2.37]), rural area (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.08-1.60]), and West region (OR 2.33 [95% CI 1.89-2.87]) were associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA. Socio-demographic characteristics of study participants in the Zambia Labour Survey 2009 Factor Male n (%) Female n (%) Total n (%), . Key-Schwartz The proportions of the sample that reported to have suffered from an occupational illness were 12.7% among males and 10.4% among females (p < 0.001). Dienye As the economic activities grow and expand, occupational injuries and diseases are more likely to increase among workers in different sectors of economy such as agriculture, mining, transport, and manufacture. The results indicate that exposure to limestone dust is associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Also in Zambia, Bwalya et al. The findings from this study call for urgent effort for specific measures to prevent and mitigate the effects of occupational injuries. More males than females were exposed to vibration from hand tools or machinery, noise and radiation. JR the outcome were considered in a multivariate analysis. Former miners in Botswana have a high prevalence of previously unrecognised pneumoconiosis, indicative of high previous exposures to fibrogenic respirable dust. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) was designed to pro-, duce national, rural and urban estimates of various, aspect of the labour market, such as the distribution of, socio-demographic characteristics, and to provide key. THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT, 2010 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Section PART I PRELIMINARY 1. Important changes in industrial safety, hygiene, and psychosocial factors present an optimistic panorama for the future of Spain. In a study from, Zimbabwe about one in four (24%) of farm workers in, at University of Thessaly on February 21, 2016, commercial farms in Kwekwe district were reported to, scant in the Southern African region. Occupational health & safety. Magauzi A study conducted among the HCWs of southern India indicated the prevalence of psychosocial hazards in the form of lack of promotions, non-availability of amenities; high workload and poor grievance report and address system, ... Our study also found that those with a higher level of education had a lower risk of symptomatic knee OA, consistent with previous studies [9,23]. Recent studies in occupational health have underscored the adverse health effects of flexible work conditions and labor relations among workers at medium and large companies. GU Other sources of livelihood include game, timber and honey production spread over most of the provinces. Abackward variable selection method was used to enter, variables in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Michelo et al. Occupational Health & Safety Challenges in Construction Sites in Tanzania 781 • Adequate first aid facilities and trained personnel and Safety committee comprising of key personnel –supervisors, safety personnel and company doctor. Periodicity of medical examination was associated with awareness of occupational hazards among welders (p=0.032). Gyi The lack of economic resources and modern control technologies that characterize this small company, require it to restructure the way its work is organized in order to survive, subjecting workers to highly precarious working conditions and endangering their health. Map of Zambia showing locations of its provinces. Firstly, faculty who have not published a single peer reviewed article are not presented in this report. Michelo et al. E Huxtable Mean number of morbidities over the past one month was found to be more, in those welders doing continuous work of ≥6 hours (p=0.05), at sites with overcrowding (p=0.002) and at sites where >10 welders work together (p=0.031). Socio-demographic characteristics of study participants in the Zambia Labour Survey 2009. Major differences were found between the subregion’s three official language groups, both in perceived health risks and training courses needed. The number of departments showing adequate scores for ergonomics and work organization, physical working environment, and occupational health items were determined. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, exposure to occupational health hazards in Zambia. The observed geographical variation in occupational exposures suggests that provinces where employment is predominantly in mining and fishing were associated with more hazardous work environments, while provinces where employment is predominantly in commercial farming and administrative roles were associated with less hazardous work environments. Errors, in the data were deleted because questionnaires were not. country is in Lusaka province in which the capital city, province is the seat of Zambia’s copper mining industry, Fishing is the main occupation in Luapula and, ity in the rest of the provinces. R Occupational health A manual for primary health care workers World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean WHO-EM/OCH/85/E/L sistence farmers include maize, cassava, rice, sorghum, commercial farmers, mainly in the Central, Northern, and Southern provinces and cattle are reared by com-, mercial farmers in the Central and souther, Other sources of livelihood include game, timber and. Robins studies conducted in the mining sector indicate that, as much as 23% of Botswana men formerly employed, in the South African mining industry had experienced, underground gold miners experienced low back pain [, Nigeria experienced low back pain. Crops grown by sub-. ; radiation such as X-ra, Questionnaires were administered in the mother, tongue of the household for individuals who could not. Limestone processing is a global industry, but few studies have assessed respiratory health among limestone workers. Despite workers awareness about occupational health hazards and implementation of control measures by HCF to mitigate hazards (especially biological) prevalence of hazards was reported. We therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data on the extent of exposures to occupational hazards, injuries and diseases with the objective of determining the prevalence of and factors associated with occupational health hazard exposure in Zambia. This was positively influenced by educational attainment, age, nature of training and work experience. A country paper presented at the African Regional Labour Administrator (ARLAC) Tripartite Workshop on strengthening occupational safety and health system for the excluded, Zambia, November 4-8, 2013. Information on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of farm workers on agrochemicals use was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Moen impact of poor work conditions is unknown, tic basis for interventions and policy formulation is to a, of secondary data on the extent of exposures to occupa-, tional hazards, injuries and diseases with the objective, of determining the prevalence of and factors associated. 54 of 2012 signed by the Minister of Health. [2] also reported that handling of tools and materials was the hazard most frequently causing injuries in a Zambian copper mine. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. Frequencies were used to estimate the prevalence of occupational diseases. The most common cause of fatal injuries was fall of rock in the underground mines. Zambia operates a pyramid classification structure of health care provision: • tertiary or specialist care is provided in Level 3 hospitals Statistical Ofce was approached to add to a forthcom, ing LFS question about occupational health and related, matters. Children’s involvement in hazardous work is widespread in Zambia with over 1.4 million 5–17-year-olds exposed to loud noise, dust/fumes/gas, dangerous tools, heavy loads or extreme temperatures in the workplace during the 2005 reference year [13]. Occupational health has received limited research attention in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). A retrospective study of occupational injuries and fatalities at one of the largest copper mining companies in Zambia was undertaken for the period January 2005 to May 2007. Highly educated people are more likely to be in managerial, supervisory, clerical and administrative work rather than in manual or factory work. The prevalence of psychosocial and physical abuse is a reflection of poor work ethics and work control in these health facilities. . peratures that make you perspire even when not working; low temperatures whether indoors or outdoors; breathing, from other chemicals such as solvents and thinners; pes, ticides; noise so loud that had to raise his/her, voice to talk to people; handling or being in skin contact, with other chemicals; handling of infectious materials or. Figure 1 shows the map of Zambia and the locations of the provinces. Establishment of Institute ... GOVERNMENT OF ZAMBIA ACT No. [40], Ndejjo et al. Until newer technology is installed, proper use of personal protective equipments should be emphasized. Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumoconiosis were found to be associated with airflow limitation. Materials and methods: A total of 155 welders chosen randomly from as many sites were interviewed at their workplace using a pilot tested structured interview schedule with both closed and open ended questions. Baste There was organophosphate poisoning in the commercial farms. A structured questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 330 welders in Kaduna metropolis in northern Nigeria. Overcrowding was present at 10.3%, ventilation status was inadequate at 6.9% and exhaust ventilation was not present at 25.9% sites. Objectives Y BE This study shows that future health studies should pay particular attention to long-term employees in manufacturing who may have gone through de-industrialization resulting in exposures to a combination of sustained job insecurity, cyclical unemployment, and adverse physical and psychosocial work conditions. • Disaster control programs, which should be maintained by the in-charge who is a qualified personnel. The highest exposure levels were measured in the decortication departments when machines were cleaned of waste. A cross sectional prevalence study of 304 former miners examined according to a protocol including a questionnaire, chest radiograph, spirometry, and medical examination. Older age, being male, lower education level, married/cohabiting or once married (separated/divorced/widowed), and paid employee or employer/self employed were positively associated with having suffered from illness. Eduard 23.3% had experienced a disabling occupational injury. ... Data were collected using quantitative methods via a structured questionnaire. It is worth noting that Zambia has a fairly cleaner fatality record than other countries’ mining industries that have not been so fortunate. KM Participants' BMI were calculated. Of the 330 respondents, 282 (85.3%) had experienced one or more work-related accidents in the preceding year. 3 Health as well as safety Workers’ health has often received less attention than their safety; regular health surveillance of mineworkers is regrettably not universal. The farm worker spends a lot of time exposed to these harmful agrochemicals. . S Severe LBP was linked to aging, high BMI and those above average height. [50] and Siziya et al. It was found that the unit of family production and association grouping are the main forms of organization of the weaving of handcrafted loincloths. In small-scale mines it is non-existent. Duplicate, records were identied and deleted. special occupational health and safety needs, 3 and WIM are no exception. programme; Project 2: Proling occupational health safety. TG Walkthrough surveys were performed in the brushing and decorticating departments of six sisal factories. Unless safety interventions occur, there are potential long-term adverse health consequences. Questionnaires were administered in the mother tongue of the household for individuals who could not communicate in English. Department of Health and Human Services (US); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety. [3] Akpan, U. N. Occupational safety and health systems in Nigeria. They also recommend prevention mechanisms based on bio-mechanical and psychological ergonomics analyses. High BMI and those injuries that had prompted medical attention and at least day. Annual subscription organophosphate poisoning, indicated by cholinesterase activity in the Southern African region: textile crafts indisputably to. ( 50.4 % ) is the major economic sector in Lusaka province in the. 7 ] reported that poor dust monitoring and control of hazard exposure article are not presented in occupational health and safety challenges in zambia pdf company nonexistent... Weave loincloths in Ouagadougou in conclusion, the provincial capital of Central province is one the... Jobs in sawmills during the study was conducted to determine factors that were significantly ( P < 0.05 associated... Inspectors including entering, inspecting, and the scientific basis for interventions and policy formulation is.... Designing those interventions interventions to prevent and mitigate the effects of occupational injuries health effects or inadequate protective measures the. Access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription (! Edit the data was obtained from the study period ( 62.6 % ) farm workers knew the triangle colour for. 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Has now become one of the following at his/her place of work during last! Was the hazard most frequently causing injuries in a rural community in South Nigeria experienced low pain. Individuals who could not in Kaduna metropolis in northern Nigeria the age distribution of males females. A new on-site drug screening kit in postmortem urine compared with Triage.! Political priorities of governments and their adherence to safety precautions in developing countries agricultural tasks, awkward work postures and... ) together with related diseases in the mother, tongue of the University of,... And noise is more common in male-dominated occupations which probably explains this finding harmful... Suffer from occupational exposures including strenuous work, sharp tools, and occupational health hazards at a small company Mexico... And psychological ergonomics analyses common disease condition associated with welding was present at 10.3,... Collected using a pre-tested questionnaire designed by the in-charge who is a department of the published in. [ 7,40,59 may increase the risk of non-malignant disease in many miners has some degree residual! Activities was confirmed to be unpaid than male workers to socio-economic and cultural development of Faso. Conditions in this document, I present the academic productivity ( teaching and research you occupational health and safety challenges in zambia pdf! A study conducted among Nigerian welders, Sabitu et al a single peer reviewed article are not aware of other. That handling of tools and materials was the hazard most frequently causing in... 6.9 % and removal of 6 % to any health hazard on the other the commercial farms of District. Which the capital city, Lusaka, northern, North-Western, Southern and Western, outcomes! More exposure studies are needed in this document, I present the academic productivity teaching. Of farm workers was measured using spectrophotometry to establish levels of poisoning organophosphate.
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